The Greek and Roman Ports of the Red Sea Coast in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

Document Type : Original Article



The ports of the Red Sea in the eastern desert of Egypt played a vital role through Ptolemaic and Roman period in the eastern trade of Egypt via different ports. This research had several points that studied the historical and the archaeological sides of the ports of the Red Sea in Egypt. Eastern desert geography indicates that large desert in eastern Egypt originating just southeast of the Nile Delta; it extends from the Nile River Valley east ward to the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. The history and importance of the Red Sea ports discuss the extent of the influence of these ports on the movement of trade through Greek and Roman times. There are several ports date back to this period such as:- Arsinoe port, Abu Sha'r port, Philoteras/Aenum port, Nechesia Port,Ptolemais Theron Port,Berenike port, Myos Hormos"Quseir" Port . This research indicates the excavations at the ports of the Red Sea such as fort of Abu Sha'r, Serapis temple at Berenike and other several buildings. There are numerous inscriptions carved on stone, papyri, and ostraca from the Ptolemaic and Roman period that provide information of the ports of the Red Sea coast of Egypt. It concludes with a set of results, as well as the recommendations need to preserve the diverse archaeological sites of the ports of the Red Sea.


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