Images of leather-workers as Sandal-maker from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom

Document Type : Original Article



This paper discusses leather-workers making sandals from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom, as a hand-made craft disrespected in ancient Egyptian society, although the workshop produced a perfect made sandals used by all the pharaohs and high officials. The worker in leather and sandal-maker was identical where leather-workers Tbw referring also to "sandal-maker," and Sandal-makers term used for leather worker in general. The workshop of leather worker making sandals was rarely depicted in ancient Egyptian tombs in comparison with other crafts, although tombs' scenes recorded that sandals were made inside the leather workshop, so no sandal made of plant fiber or papyrus has been shown. The paper also describes the hardship of working conditions of this craft which led to portray the craft as a humble and misery profession by Egyptian society. Some letters records the assignment of animal skins to sandal-maker from the regular daily sacrifice inside the temple. it also reflected a link between good quality of leather and sandal maker. Various Egyptian literature texts connected the hardship and misery life of sandal-maker with the leather worker.   


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